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Carrieredag Bos- en
   Natuursector

Verken je
   beroepsmogelijkheden
   in de bos- en natuursector
   Woensdag 27 juni 2012
   Meer info [pdf 1mb]  

Launch Specialist
Journal “Bos en Natuur”
   April 2010
   Download here [pdf 2mb]
 

Laboratorium
Laboratorium folder Januari 2014”
   Januari 2014
   Download here [pdf 785Kb]
  

Reports Passed Events:
Proceedings CELOS Forest
   Management System
   (7 April 2006)
Seminar about Land use and
   Amazon Initiative
   (7 March 2006)
 
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Agro Experiments Sites
Biodiversity Bigi Pan
   (MUMA)

Composting
Edible Mushrooms
GUYAGROFOR
TEAM

Projects & Experiments: Experiments: Agro Experiment Sites

Agro Experiment sites

Project I. A feasibility study on the completely mechanized cultivation on small farm scale of some specific annual crops, suitable for rain-fed arable sandy-loam and loamysand soils of the Zanderij formation, based on field research.

I.1 Background
Production of the Surinamese livestock sector, including beef and dairy cattle, pigs and poultry, for local consumption, is highly dependent on imported and expensive inputs, such as feed. Imported feed components are maize and soybean concentrates. Those ingredients are milled and mixed by livestock producers or in local feed factories.



I.2 Intermediate results aimed at by the project

- Time and cost data on the different cultivation practices based on field research for soybean ( Glycine max), maize ( Zea mais) and cassava ( Manihot esculenta), grown on 3 to 4 ½ ha.
- Net yield and profit data based on field research for the different crops.
- An economic analysis of the costs and profits resulting from the field research.
- A deduction of the economic analysis results to practices on farm scale
- A summarising report



I.3 Project activities during the first two ½ years

Experiments with genetic material of soybean (Sambaiba originating from Embrapa), maize (S97TLYGH”AyB” originating from Cimmyt, Mexico and collected material from variety trials SA10Y and SA11Y from CIAT, Columbia) and cassava (local sweet and bitter clones and varieties from CIAT-CLAYUCA, Colombia) are being carried out at the experimental field Phedra, a former oil palm plantation in the Zanderij formation.





Incorporation of other crops, such as upland rice and leguminous
soil covering crops, in the cultivation cycle is in preparation. Time and cost data for different mechanized cultivation practices are being collected since 2003 for the growing of soybean and maize at Phedra on min 3.5 and max 9 ha. Since June 2004 cassava has been included in the rotation. Time and cost data for different mechanized cultivation practices are being collected since 2003 for the growing of soybean and maize at Phedra on min 3.5 and max 9 ha. Since june 2004 cassava has been included in the rotation. Back to top



I.3 Results

Near to the experimental field, daily precipitation data are gathered. The soil of the experimental field
is a brownyellow loamy-sand to sandy-loam belonging to the kaolinitic oxisols. The sand fraction consists of medium sized quartz and the clay fraction of kaolinite. The clay content increases with depth. The soil is characterized by a low fertility, high acidity (pH 4.6), high aluminum saturation and a low percentage of available P. Due to characteristic differences in texture composition of the top soil (sand, loamy-sand, sandy-loam) within short distances, being expressed in plant performance, a detailed experimental research set-up consisting of small plots is regarded as not feasible. For soybean and maize, grown in rotation, two growing seasons a year are aimed at since 2003. Because of the uneven distribution of the rainfall over the year (average rainfall a year: 2200 mm), two crops with a growing cycle of about 120 days each, can be grown a year.





The first season takes place during the small rainy and dry seasons, from December until March; the second from April/May on, during the long rainy season, with harvest at the end of August, the first month of the long dry season. Due to the irregular spreading of the rainfall, especially the early start of the long rainy season from the beginning of April on, resulting in a lack of time for tillage operations to repress the weeds during the preparation of the seedbed, results could only be obtained during two soybean (December ‘02 – March ‘03; December ‘03 – March ‘04) and three maize seasons (May – September ‘03; December ‘03 – March ‘04; January –April ‘05).

The field operations for soybean and maize are
mechanized, including traditional tillage operations: disc harrowing for stubble clearing; primary soil tillage with a 3-disc plough or a 2-element moldboard plough; seedbed preparation with a rotary harrow; planting with band fertilizing of P2O5 with a pneumatic precision seeding machine with mounted fertilizer units; mechanical weed control between the rows with a tractor mounted 5- element hoe; broadcasted fertilizing of N and K2O with a centrifugal spreader; pre- and post- emergence herbicide spraying and pesticide spraying with a tractor mounted sprayer; harvesting with a combine (cutting with adaptable cutting bar for maize and soybean, thresshing and winnowing).


 

 


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Time data for the use of machinery are collected on row length and field scale. Yield data are collected on field scale (mechanical harvest) and depending on the research set-up also on plots (manual harvest). The soybean and maize seeds are being dried to 12% humidity in a warm air producing (gasoline burner) bin-drier at the research center A study of conservation agriculture management in the region is in progress. Tillage operations at the beginning of the rainy season in combination with the slight slopes that characterize our experimental field, result in erosion. Early rains limit mechanical seedbed operations. Possibilities and consequences of the introduction of conservation agriculture practices in the project rotation schedule have to be considered. Plant protection measurements focus on the protection of maize against the larvae of Spodoptera spp. Different pesticides are being tested in the field experiment.

Because breeding of soybean and maize is not practiced in Suriname, the project depends on regional trials including germ plasma improved for tolerance to acidic soils with high aluminium toxicity. Liming is considered to be too expensive. The project is also depending on imports of soybean inoculant from the region. Healthy and good producing plants are selected in the experimental field and are manually harvested for seed collection. Since June 2004 the cultivation of cassava on the experimental field of Phedra is included in the rotation.

Planting of vegetative material of five locally collected sweet clones and a mixture of bitter clones started in June until September 2004 on 3.5 ha. Ridges were prepared using a rotavator with mounted ridging elements. Planting in the ridges took place manually; the cuttings were placed inclined during the rainy season and horizontally during the beginning of the dry season. A pre-emergence herbicide was sprayed. During the first six weeks after planting, intensive post-emergence knapsack herbicide spraying was needed.

 

Plant protection activities focus on the observed occurrence of white flies and mites. Harvesting of the sweet cassava took place from January until June 2005, depending on the maturity of the clone. The bitter varieties are being harvested since June 2005. A potato digger has been tested and has been modified to dig and lift the cassava root system out of the soil. Separation of the roots from the root system and collection of the roots to gather the yield data was carried out manually. A report is in progress. Back to top

Project II: The description and preservation of different cashew genotypes for vegetative reproduction and cultivation purposes on low fertility soils as well as a description of different cultivation practices based on field research.






II.1 Background

The bleached or white coarse savanna sands of the Surinamese Zanderij formation are very poor and are not taken into cultivation except for the cultivation of pineapple (Ananas comosus) on dry areas, without water logging. For the indigenous communities of the Zanderij region, the rather extensive cultivation of pineapple is of some economical importance. Traditionally, those communities grow individual cashew trees on these bleached soils. Cashew seems to be able to grow well and to produce fruits under these rather marginal and stressful environmental conditions, without intensive cultivation practices. In the past some cashew varieties were collected and observed on experimental farms in the Zanderij belt and in the interior uplands. Recently, more emphasis is given to the cultivation possibilities of cashew as a plantation crop on the bleached savanna soils and investments in processing cashew nuts are starting up. For the local communities this development could mean a secondary source of income.

II.2 Intermediate results aimed at by the project
-A description of the growing characteristics and data on yields of cashew types
collected in Suriname or recently introduced in Suriname and grown on low fertility soils.
-A description and developed extension tools about different cultivation practices based
on field experiments and experiences (reproduction, fertilization, diagnoses and remedies
for pests and deseases, pruning, harvesting)
-Genetic material of different cashew types should be available for (vegetative) -reproduction purposes

II.3 Project activities and results during the first two ½ years
A collection consisting of different in Suriname gathered or recently introduced cashew types is laid out in March 2003 and preserved at Powakka for description of the growing characteristics and for vegetative reproduction

An experiment with two promising Brazilian dwarf varieties (FAGA 1 and FAGA 11) is laid out at three sites (1 ha each) characterized with low soil fertility: on coarse white sands of Powakka in the Zanderij formation since April 2003, on coarse brown and white sands of Phedra in the Zanderij formation since July 2003, in replaced topsoil over bauxite mined soil at Coermotibo in the old coastal plain since since June 2003 (rehabilitation area).

The planting material in both the collection and the FAGA experimental sites consisted of seedlings grown in the nursery at the research center. During the first year after planting lost seedlings (by cutting ants and grasshoppers) have been replaced, weeds were mechanically repressed by disc harrowing and mineral fertilizers were administered (ad the beginning of the two rainy seasons and once during the long rainy season).

 

Since January 2004, vegetative measurements are carried out on a regular base: plant height, crown width and basal diameter of the trunk. Special interest goes to the observation of illnesses and plagues.

From the third year after planting, measurements of nut production take place: flowering intensity, number of nuts, nut weight, shelling percentage. In planning stage are: an orientation at cashew plantations in Brazil; experiments on plant density, fertilizer amount and frequency in co-operation with local communities and other interested growers; training in vegetative reproduction; development of extension and training tools. Back to top



























































 

 

 

 

 

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